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Standard C Library (libc, -lc)

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <limits.h>

#include <inttypes.h>

#include <sys/types.h>

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <limits.h>

The
`strtol()`
function
converts the string in
nptr
to a
long
value.
The
`strtoll()`
function
converts the string in
nptr
to a
long long
value.
The
`strtoimax()`
function
converts the string in
nptr
to an
intmax_t
value.
The
`strtoq()`
function
converts the string in
nptr
to a
quad_t
value.
The conversion is done according to the given
base,
which must be between 2 and 36 inclusive,
or be the special value 0.

The string may begin with an arbitrary amount of white space
(as determined by
isspace(3))
followed by a single optional
‘`+`’
or
‘`-`’
sign.
If
base
is zero or 16,
the string may then include a
"`0x`"
prefix,
and the number will be read in base 16; otherwise, a zero
base
is taken as 10 (decimal) unless the next character is
‘`0`’,
in which case it is taken as 8 (octal).

The remainder of the string is converted to a
long, long long, intmax_t
or
quad_t
value in the obvious manner,
stopping at the first character which is not a valid digit
in the given base.
(In bases above 10, the letter
‘`A`’
in either upper or lower case
represents 10,
‘`B`’
represents 11, and so forth, with
‘`Z`’
representing 35.)

If
endptr
is not
` NULL`,
`strtol()`
stores the address of the first invalid character in
*endptr.
If there were no digits at all, however,
`strtol()`
stores the original value of
nptr
in
*endptr.
(Thus, if
*nptr
is not
‘`\0`’
but
**endptr
is
‘`\0`’
on return, the entire string was valid.)

The
`strtol()`,
`strtoll()`,
`strtoimax()`
and
`strtoq()`
functions
return the result of the conversion,
unless the value would underflow or overflow.
If no conversion could be performed, 0 is returned and
the global variable
errno
is set to
`EINVAL`
(the last feature is not portable across all platforms).
If an overflow or underflow occurs,
errno
is set to
`ERANGE`
and the function return value is clamped according
to the following table.

Function | underflow | overflow |

strtol() | LONG_MIN | LONG_MAX |

strtoll() | LLONG_MIN | LLONG_MAX |

strtoimax() | INTMAX_MIN | INTMAX_MAX |

strtoq() | LLONG_MIN | LLONG_MAX |

[EINVAL]
| |

The value of base is not supported or no conversion could be performed (the last feature is not portable across all platforms). | |

[ERANGE]
| |

The given string was out of range; the value converted has been clamped. | |

The
`strtol()`
function
conforms to
ISO/IEC 9899:1990 ("ISO C90").
The
`strtoll()`
and
`strtoimax()`
functions
conform to
ISO/IEC 9899:1999 ("ISO C99").
The
*BSD *
`strtoq()`
function is deprecated.

STRTOL (3) | November 28, 2001 |

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